Infant Formula Fortification Prevent Disease
Micronutrient fortification of milk formula with clinically certain ratio can increase endurance of children aged 1-3 years against the risks of disease that often occurs.
This study carried out by Prof Sunil Sazawal MD, MPH, PhD, an associate professor of Department of International Health Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University. In his research entitled "Effects of fortified milk in the Morbidity in young children in North India: community based, randomized, double masked placebo controlled trial", Sunil finds that advances in nutrition today, especially in the field of micronutrients, have a major impact in designing strategies for reduce cases of micronutrient deficiency or deficiencies. Besides improving community health status.
One strategy that can be used is food fortification. Micronutrient fortification of milk formula with a certain ratio (IU/110μg 370 RE vitamin A, vitamin E 2.7 mg, 16 mg vitamin C, iron 3.2 mg, 3.2 mg zinc, selenium 2.2 tg, Cooper 0, 1 mg), can increase endurance of children aged 1-3 years against the risks of disease.
"For example diarrhea, anemia, lower respiratory tract infections, and also improve the nutritional status and growth of children," said Sunil in his presentation at the Hotel Gran Melia recently.
Research conducted during 2002-2004 Sunil suburban town of Delhi, India, 633 involved children as respondents with a record of 1-3 year olds, but suffered malanutrisi and sick children were not included in the study. From the whole child, as many as 317 children consuming milk with lower content of micronutrients. Meanwhile, a total of 316 children consume ordinary milk. All the kids 2-3 times a day to consume milk or milk nutrivit normal within a year.
After one year, the study found children who consumed milk with fortification nutrivit, it gives twice as much protection to diseases such as those mentioned. "In addition, consumption of antibiotics also tend to decline in groups of children who drank milk fortification, including decreasing the overall morbidity, and improve nutritional status and height of children," said Sunil.
Sunil continued, in addition to providing a variety of micronutrients needed, this method also has many additional benefits because of easily available, low cost, and minor side effects. In addition to also simplify the process of digestion and high compliance of fulfilling a child's nutritional needs.
In children with acute diarrhea usually occurs mineral deficiency zinc (Zn). Subclinical deficiency of this mineral make stunted child growth and low body endurance.
"The cause of most deaths of children under five years is an inflammation of the respiratory tract and diarrhea," said Chairman of the Division of Gastroenterology Children Soetomo Prof Dr Dr Dr Subijanto Marto Sudarmo SpA (K). This is a mirror of the research conducted in 1999 Subijanto.
Subijanto explained, Zn mineral intervention as much as 10 milligrams for one to two weeks will accelerate healing. In addition, the recurrence of attacks of diarrhea can be prevented up to three months. Especially for respiratory tract inflammation or pneumonia, more than 2 million children under five die from this disease.
Pneumonia became one of the five causes of death in children under five. A total number of cases of children with pneumonia in the world, located in 15 countries. Based on data Unicef / WHO 2006, Indonesia was ranked sixth after Bangladesh, with 6 million cases.
Meanwhile, mineral deficiencies can also cause subclinical symptoms such as weakness and endurance of children susceptible to disease as well as barriers to growth. This is caused by minerals influence on overall body metabolism.
As for iron deficiency affects the body's immunity and can lead to patients susceptible to infectious diseases. Zinc deficiency can result in reduced ability to regenerate cells, immune response, and difficult wounds to heal.
Unlike with copper deficiency. The reduced ability of iron to form hemoglobin, a response to the lack of copper in the body content. In fact, copper functions in providing protection against the nerve. While selenium plays an important role against infection and play a role in modulating the growth and development.
Vitamins no doubt also plays a large share of which contribute to the health of the body. Vitamin A for example, plays a role in immune function so that this vitamin deficiency can cause decreased immune cell responses that are susceptible to infection. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that is useful to protect against free radicals. This vitamin can prevent cell damage caused by the oxidative process. Last vitamin E, vitamin is useful to improve immune response and counteract the decline in immune function.
Still a lack of micronutrients in young preschoolers appear higher in all Asian countries. In 2008 WHO report estimates that, in cases of anemia were 44.5 percent of Indonesia, Malaysia 32.4 percent, the Philippines 36.3 percent, and Sri Lanka 29.9 percent.
Not only in Asia, around the world were the main cause of illness and death in children under five are diarrhea and acute lower respiratory tract, consisting of 19 percent due to pneumonia and 17 percent because of diarrhea. The disease causes malnutrition is a factor in half of all infant deaths. "Therefore, consumption of fortified milk is one way to overcome these problems," said Sunil.