Senin, 19 April 2010

Migraine Headaches DEFINITIONS

Migraine Headaches

Migraine Headaches are severe and recurrent throbbing pain, usually on one side of the head but sometimes on both sides of the head.
Pain arises suddenly and may be preceded or accompanied by visual symptoms (vision), neurological or gastrointestinal tract.

Migraines can occur at any age, but usually starts between the ages of 10-30 years; sometimes disappear after the age of 50 years.
More often attack women.
Migraine headaches are usually more severe than tension headaches.

More than half of patients have close relatives who also suffer from migraines, which presumably reduced the likelihood that this disease is genetic.

Migraines occur when an artery leading to the brain become narrow (constrict, shrink) and then widen (dilate), which would activate nearby pain receptors.
What causes these blood vessels shrink and widen, not known. But the levels of serotonin (the chemicals that play a role in nerve cell communication / neurotransmitters) could trigger the occurrence of abnormally low blood vessel constriction.

Sometimes a migraine is caused by abnormal blood vessel formation, in cases like this, the headache is almost always felt on the same side of the head.

Approximately 10-30 minutes before the headaches started (a period called the aura or prodroma), the symptoms of depression, irritability, anxiety, nausea or loss of appetite appeared in approximately 20% patients.
Patients who experienced a loss of vision in certain areas (or skotoma blind spot) or see the light flickering.
There are also patients who experienced a change description, such an object appear smaller or larger than the real thing.
Some people feel tingling or weakness in the arms and legs.
Usually these symptoms disappear shortly before the headache starts, but sometimes occur simultaneously with the emergence of a headache.

Because of migraine pain can be felt on one side of the head or around the head.
Sometimes the hands and feet felt cold and seemed to turn blue.

In patients who have an aura, the headache pattern and location of any attack on migrant is the same.

Migraines can often happen for a long time but then disappeared for several weeks, months or even years.


There is no laboratory test can help to strengthen the diagnosis of migraine.
Usually the diagnosis is established based on the typical pattern of the headache.

If untreated, a migraine attack can last for several hours or days.
In some patients, mild headache and can be removed with the pain reliever sold freely.
But migraine sufferers are often great and makes a helpless, especially if accompanied by nausea, vomiting and dazzled eyes (fotofobia). In cases like this, usually in addition to pain medication, patients also need rest and sleep to reduce the headache.

The most widely used drug is Ergotamine (a vasoconstrictor), which causes blood vessels helping to prevent the widening of blood vessels and cause pain.

High doses of caffeine also helps prevent the widening of blood vessels and are often given in conjunction with pain medication, or Ergotamine.

Newer drugs (eg, eletriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan and zolmitriptan) works to increase serotonin effects.
These drugs are more effective than aspirin or asetamonofen, but more expensive.

Ergotamine and new drugs can be dangerous and should not be used more than prescribed.

Some drugs are taken daily can prevent migraine attacks.
Beta-blockers propanolol provide long-term effects symptom free.
Can also be given calcium channel blocker verapamil.

Anti-seizure drugs divalproex has been shown to decrease the frequency of migraine attacks, if taken daily.
Metisergid is one of the most effective drugs in preventing migraine, but should not be used continuously, because it has peritonealis complications such as fibrosis (scar tissue formation in the stomach), which can impede blood flow to vital organs. Therefore the use of these drugs should be under strict supervision.


Tidak ada komentar: